what is File Organization?

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File organization refers to how you organize the files you are saving. In computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. All files are saved in folders, even those you save on the Desktop (there is a Desktop folder!).

Most computers organize files into hierarchies using folders, directories, or catalogs.  Each folder can contain an arbitrary number of files, and it can also contain other folders. These other folders are referred to as subfolders. Subfolders can contain still more files and folders and so on, thus building a tree-like structure in which one "master folder" (or "root folder" — the name varies from one operating system to another) can contain any number of levels of other folders and files. Folders can be named just as files can (except for the root folder, which often does not have a name). The use of folders makes it easier to organize files in a logical way.

The image below contains both folders (sometimes called directories) and files. In the Windows environment, folders usually have an icon of a folder in front of them.

File Directory Structure

When a computer allows the use of folders, each file and folder has not only a name of its own, but also a path, which identifies the folder or folders in which a file or folder resides. In the path, some sort of special character—such as a slash—is used to separate the file and folder names. For example, in the illustration above, the path /My Documents/letters/john.doc uniquely identifies a file called john.doc in a folder called letters, contained in the folder My Documents. The folder and file names are separated by slashes in this example; the topmost or root folder has no name, and so the path begins with a slash (if the root folder had a name, it would precede this first slash).

Many (but not all) computer systems use extensions in file names to help identify what they contain, also known as the file type. On Windows computers, extensions consist of a dot (period) at the end of a file name, followed by a few letters to identify the type of file. An extension of .txt identifies a text file; a .docx extension identifies any type of document or documentation, commonly in the Microsoft Word file format; and so on.

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